Modified Newtonian dynamics

Cosmology Physics
Modified Newtonian dynamics

Hypothesis proposing a modification of Newton's laws

Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a hypothesis that proposes a modification of Newton's law of universal gravitation to account for observed properties of galaxies. It is an alternative to the hypothesis of dark matter in terms of explaining why galaxies do not appear to obey the currently understood laws of physics.

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A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis. (1983)

Milgrom, M.